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The name elektron, from which our word electricity is derived, was given to the attractive property of amber by the ancient Greeks.
The name indicates the yellow color of the substance which reminded them of the sun. The property of attracting iron bodies possessed by an iron ore, lodestone, was also a matter of common knowledge in very ancient times.
It is supposed that the words magnet and magnetite were applied to the lodestone on account of the name of the province of Mag- nesia in Asia Minor, in which large quantities of the ore were discovered.
The two fundamental phenomena of electric and magnetic attraction underlie our present knowledge of electricity and magnetism.
The connec- tion, although suspected for some time, was not experimentally established until The only practical use made of either of these attractions up to , the date of the invention of the lightning rod, was the mariner's compass, the history of th B origin of which is obscure.
It app ears not to have been invented at any particular time or place, but was undoubtedly known to several ancient peoples.
Its first appearance in Europe is placed in the thirteenth century, and from that time on it was in general use on shipboard in a very crude form.
During the period of mystery there was imlimited speculation regarding the relation of electrical and magnetic attractions.
There was, however, Uttle experimental basis for the theories advanced. Period of Scientific Preparation.
The scientific period began with Dr. His chief writing, " de Magnete," published in , contains the results of laborious and expensive research.
It was the cause of further study by numerous other philosophers who discovered one by one the fundamental electrical and magnetic laws.
Gilbert disproved a number of fallacies intended to explain electric and magnetic attraction, and he demonstrated that many sub- stances beside amber may be electrified by rubbing.
He studied the nature of magnetic poles and gave a rational explanation of their properties. Qeneration and Conduction of Electricity.
His elec- trical machine consisted of a sulphur globe rubbed by hand Fig. Smith forging iron in magnetic meridian, "de Magnete," published From Gilbert's to electrify it.
In Sir Isaac Newton Christmas Day, — March 20, improved the machine by substituting glass for sulphur, thus producing in principle the electrical machine of to-day.
Up to the time of von Guericke and Newton the attractive property was supposed to be confined to the rubbed substances.
The former discovered that it could be conducted along a thread. At this time Stephen Gray London, date of birth unknown, die found that an ivory ball possessed the ability to attract light bodies when connected with an electric machine by a thread.
Incidentally he also discovered the ability of silk to insulate the conducting thread. Gray's work furnished the inspiration for more scientific research by Charles F.
Du Fay Paris, In he made a long series of observations in the line of Gray's experiments. As a result he was able to separate materials into two general classes, conductors and non-conductors.
He also improved upon Gray's silk insulator by making solid ones of glass and wax. He constructed a transmission line of some length through which the influence of the electrical machine was conducted.
Du Fay made the astounding dis- covery that while some substances when rubbed attract light bodies the latter are repelled by other substances similarly treated.
He, therefore, assumed that there were two kinds of electricity. The possibility of generating electricity readily by means of Newton's machine and, through the discoveries of Gray and Du Fay, conducting it, led to the popularizing of electrical experiments.
While making some such experiments about the year , Peter van Musschenbroeck Leyden, found that electricity could be stored in a bottle.
His first electric bottle consisted of a glass jar filled with water and held in the hand. A wire passed through the cork, the lower end being immersed in the water.
The jar was charged by applying the outer end of the wire to the terminal of an elec- tric machine. Thus charged the jar could be carried about and would hold its electricity for some time.
It should be noted that some years before this important invention, the possibility of inducing electric charges on bodies was known, in fact most of the popular experiments were in this direction.
It did not occur to any- one, however, that the electrical charge could be stored ia a body electrically independent of the source of the charge.
The invention of the electric bottle stimulated popular interest, and soon after the experiment was repeated in several countries.
Some of the apparatus was sent to Benjamin Franklin Philadelphia, Pa. The philosopher immediately began experi- menting with the bottle and theorizing regarding it.
As a result he announced the theory that there was but one kind of electricity, its absence producing one eflfect and its presence another.
Franklin's studies with the electric bottle con- vinced him of the identity of lightning and electricity, which he was able to prove experimentally in Thus the light- ning rod was invented, the first commercial application of electrical principles.
Electricity had been used in the treat- ment of disease before this time, but not in a scientific manner and with very dubious results.
Up to the middle of the eighteenth century numerous experimental data had been collected and were available for the production of mathematical and physical theories of electricity and for precise measurements.
The latter were used as checks upon the theory, and at the same time they furnished the raw material for further analysis. Among those who made such studies were Henry Cavendish London, and Charles A, Coulomb as military engineer was loca- ted in various parts of France, Luigi Gaivani Bologna, was also much interested in electri- cal experiments.
He had occasion to dissect some frogs' legs, and these were accidentally brought into contact with two dissimilar metals.
The twitching of the frogs' legs sug- gested to Dr. Volta's electric pile and the "frog-leg" experiment of Gaivani repeated by its use.
His discovery attracted the attention of Prof. Alessandro Volia Pavia, Italy, , who disagreed with Gaivani as to the source of the electricity, and believed that it came from the contact of two dissimilar metals.
To prove this conclusively he con- structed a pile of pairs of disks of dissimilar metals, each pair separated from the next by moistened paper.
In with the aid of a large number of voltaic cells he was able to heat a platinum wire to whiteness and to produce an arc between two carbon points.
This invention of the electric light indicated the practical possibilities of the rapidly developing science. In Davy also produced chemical decomposition by means of the current.
Up to the beginning of the nineteenth century electrical knowledge had developed to such an extent that practical applications were beginning to result.
Some slight use had also been made of magnetism, but the relation of these to each other was only suspected. In and , Prof. Hans Christian Oersted Copenhagen, 1 discovered that there was an actual connection between magnetism and the electric current.
While performing some experiments before his class he placed a wire carrying a current in the neighborhood of a magnetic needle and noticed that the latter was deflected.
In the short space of one week he performed this feat and gave a rational treatment of the relation of the magnetic field to the electric current.
In the same year Dominique- Frangois Arago Paris, discovered that magnetism could be pro- duced in other bodies by the current.
This was a step in advance of Oersted. In he performed an experiment in which a metal disk was revolved before a magnet.
He found that the magnet tended to follow the disk. Michael Faraday London, was much interested in the electrical work going on in Davy's laboratory.
In pondering the cause of the reaction produced between the disk and the magnet in Arago's exp eriment he conceived the idea that electricity was induced in the disk by its motion near the magnet.
Between and he made many exp eriments to prove this, and by the latter year had systematized the knowledge of this subject in a remarkable manner.
This current will not be permanent, but will exist only during the motion of approach. If the magnet and coil be separated, a current will again be induced, but, as in the previous case, its direction will be opposite to that of the first.
Mendenhall, "A Century of Electricity. Faraday was able by means of a modification of Aragp's experi- ment to produce current by the motion of the disk, and in effect invented the djmamo.
Peter Barlow Woolwich, Eng- land, reversed the operation of Faraday's disk by sending a current through it, thus producing the electric motor.
Contemporaneous with Faraday, but independent of him, was Prof. Joseph Henry Albany, N. Between Fig.
The original electric motor as constructed by Peter Barlow and shown in his book published in Similar magnets were at the same time constructed in England by William Sturgeon Manchester, England, In comparing the work of Henry and Faraday it will be noted that the former was most interested in the production of mag- netism from electricity.
Faraday studied carefully the induc- tion of electricity from magnetism. Magnetism, Magnetic attraction, lodestone, antiquity.
Mariner's compass, origin un- known, used at least as early as 13 th century. Gilbert, researches published "de Magnete," Electric attraction, amber, antiq- uity.
Gilbert, researches latter part i6th century. Guericke, Electric Machine, Newton, Electric Machine, I Gray, Electric Conduction, Insula- tion, about I Du Fay, separated conductors and non-conductors, two-fluid theory of electricity, Musschenbroek, Leyden jar, Franklin, identity of lightning and electricity, the lightning-rod, Cavendish and Coulomb, scientific and analytical work in electricity, latter part of i8th century.
Galvani, current electricity, "frog- leg experiment," Volta, the primary cell, Davy, the arc light, chemical decomposition, 1 Oersted, magnetic effect of cur- rent, I Ampere, scientific and analytical study of Oersted's work, With these men the preparatory period of electrical development may be said to close.
Before their scientific work was completed, however, practical appli- cations were already being made.
Period of Commercial Development. By the year , all of the principles necessary for the commercial development of electrical engineering had been discovered.
The static electric machine was practically per- fect. The conduction of static electricity along wires was well understood, and materials had been separated into con- ductors and non-conductors.
The knowledge of current elec- tricity had progressed to such a point that it was possible to produce a limited supply by chemical and mechanical means.
The Leyden jar in a practically perfect form permitted the accumulation of electricity for experimental uses, and the arrangement of these jars in batteries gave sufficient capacity for all purposes to which static electricity could be applied.
The identity of lightning and electricity had been established, and a practical lightning rod for protecting buildings had been developed.
The laws of electro-magnetic induction had been systematically investigated, and magnetism had been produced from the electric current.
Arc and incandescent lights had been produced, and substances had been electrically decom- posed. These elementary facts and laws were sufficient when commercially developed to produce all of the electrical devices of the present day.
The growth of electrical engineering from to the present time has occurred along a number of different lines, all to some extent related but more or less independent.
It will be convenient to summarize the commercial development under a nimiber of different topics. As early as , a telegraph system using a number of different wires connected to pith balls had been devised.
Signals were transmitted by supplying these pith balls with electric charge through their respective conducting lines, the different pith balls representing the letters of the alphabet.
Forty years later this device was improved by reducing the number of wires to one, the pith balls being mounted upon a wheel rotating synchronously with another at the sending end of the line.
Up to this time transmission was by means of static electricity. About current electricity was used for transmitting signals by producing a change in the color of moist htmus paper moving under a contact finger.
All of this development was preliminary to the electro-magnetic telegraph made possible by the discovery of Professor Oersted in As soon as the magnetic effect of current was discovered, the invention of a telegraph system, involving the deflection of magnetic needles by the current, was the immediate result.
Ampere devised a system employ- ing several wires and deflecting needles, the movements of which represented the letters of the alphabet.
The needle telegraph became immediately popular, and in there was produced a practical needle arrangement with a signal to attract the attention of the receiving operator.
A few years later Sir Charles Wheatstone London, England, devised a 5-needle equipment and afterward reduced the number of needles to one. This plan was put into com- mercial operation and was fairly successful.
In this country, and at the same time. Prof, S. Morse Charlestown, Mass. His first apparatus, which is illustrated in Fig.
XIU, was a device for recording dots and dashes upon a moving strip of Digitize. In , after numerous discouragements.
Professor Morse received a small appropriation from Congress for the construction of an experimental line between Baltimore and Washington, and over this the first message was sent on May 27, It was soon found that messages could be taken by sound from the recorder, and the system was thus simpli- fied by substituting a " soimder "' for the recorder in many cases.
The recorder in improved mechanical form is still in use for particular classes of service. Advances in Telegraphy.
The advances in telegraphy since Morse's invention have consisted principally in improv- ing the transmission system.
The first step in this direction was the invention by Thomas A. Edison Menlo Park, N. This " duplex- ing'' of the system led to further invention along the same line, resulting two years later in the " quadruplex " of the present day.
From the first a most important feature in rendering possible the extension of telegraph circuits was the " relay.
The line current passes through the bobbins of the relay which attract an iron armature attached to a contact lever.
The movements of this lever " make " ' and " break " the local circuit, reproducing in it the impulses received from the line.
Another method of improving the line efficiency is by send- ing the signals very rapidly. Automatic systems have been successfully developed for this purpose but have not been adopted on a large scale commercially.
In one plan a tape is perforated with holes so placed that they represent the Morse signals. The decomposition of the substance in the paper by the current.
The latest development in the transmission of signals is wireless telegraphy, which differs radically in principle from other systems.
In general it may be said that the trans- mission involves the use of electric waves in the ether.
The properties of these waves were discovered by Prof. Heinrich Hertz, and they are frequently called Hertzian waves. These waves are set up by the discharge of an induction coil, and they are radiated throughout space.
In utilizing the waves for telegraphy they are received on a col- lecting wire which transmits them to the ground through a sensitive resistance known as the coherer.
The coherer consists of masses of metal particles or of an electroly- tic cell. Either of these has its resistance temporarily decreased by the passage of the electric waves.
The coherer is connected in a local battery circuit, and the signals are reproduced in a telephone, a telegraph sounder, or other apparatus.
The Telephone. The application of the electric circuit to the transmission of speech came naturally much later than the telegraph, which merely transmits signals.
The first ideas of transmitting sound electrically date back to the middle of the last century when musical soimds were actually so transmitted.
It remained, however, for Prof, Alex. Graham Bell Boston, Mass. C, date to trans- mit speech. Bell exhibited at the Centennial Exposition of a crude form of telephone, containing the fundamental principles of the present receiver.
Bell's apparatus was entirely satisfactory as a receiver, and in modified form is in use at the present time.
Elisha Gray Chicago, He was thus able to intro- duce much more power into the transmitting circuit than was possible in Bell's device. This principle underlies all trans- mitters of the present time.
Other inventors devised trans- mitters working on the same general principle but diflfering in the manner in which the variable resistance was produced.
Emile Berliner Washington, D. C, date in applied the principle to contact resistances, whereas Gray varied his resistance by the degree of immersion of a metal needle in fluid.
Edison, Prof, D. Hughes, Henry Hunnings, Francis Blake, and others varied the details of the transmitter con- struction without altering the principle.
The only essential addition to the original inventions was the use of an induc- tion coil in connection with the transmitter to raise the trans- mission pressure and thus increase the range of transmission.
With a satisfactory transmitter and receiver the next step in the development of the telephone was the production of switchboards for connecting the subscribers together.
Soon after the invention of receiver and transmitter, a switchboard was installed for commercial use. From this crude boards which served merely to connect the subscribers' circuits, the present elaborate systems have been developed.
This machine sent alternating current through the line and operated a specially constructed bell. At the present time the alternating current for ringing and the direct current for the talking circuit are furnished from the central office over the same circuit, a condenser being employed to permit the passage of the alternating current through the local bell circuit, while an inductance coil in the talking circuit allows direct current to pass and keeps out the alternating current.
During the first few years of the nineteenth century. Sir Humphry Davy produced both arc and incandescent light.
His source of power was the primary battery, the limitation of which discouraged the develop- ment of his discoveries.
By the use of two thousand cells of battery he produced an arc, the name indicating the arched form taken by the stream of carbon vapor.
He heated platintun wire to incandescence by means of the cur- rent, but as this platinum was in the air it was soon destroyed by oxidation.
Development of the Incandescent Lamp. Starr of Cincinnati, Ohio. The patent was taken out in Great Britain, and the first American patent was dated June 29, Little use was made of the inventions, owing to the lack of cheap current.
As soon, therefore, as a practical electric generator was produced the interest in elec- tric lighting increased. It remained for Thomas A.
Edison to place the incandescent lamp on a commercial basis, which he succeeded in doing, after an extensive series of experi- ments, in Edison was not the first to use a vacuum or a carbon filament, but he combined the results of previous experiments with his own in such a way as to enable him to make a commercial form of lamp.
Since the time of the patents of Edison and Swan, improvements in the incandescent lamp have until recently been largely in their mechanical construction.
At the present time the lamp is in a process of transition, apparently back to the metal fila- ment. Platinum is not the metal now employed, but the more refractory tungsten, titanium, tantalum and other rare metals are coming into use.
The chief improvement in the carbon filament consists in raising it during the manu- facture to a very high temperature producing a change in the form of the carbon, and permitting it to be operated at a much higher temperature.
The word " metallized " is applied to this improved filament from its resemblance to metal wire.
The result of these recent inventions has been to reduce power consumption in the lamp for a given output of light.
Development of the Arc Lamp. The arc produced by Davy needed only a mechanism for regulating the distance between carbons to render it commercially applicable.
This would imdoubtedly have been invented had there been a satisfactory source of current. Davy's experiment was repeated from time to time, and the mechanism referred to was finally pro- duced in In the early sixties practical use was made of the arc lamp, and a short length of street in Paris was lighted by a singular form known as the JablochkoflF candle.
After this the development was rapid, and lamps were brought out by Prof, Moses G. Farmer Dover, N.
Brush Cleveland, Ohio, date , and others in this country and abroad. The arcs referred to were all open to the air. In L. B, Marks perfected an inclosing globe for the arc by means of which the consumption of carbon was greatly reduced.
The saving resulted from the partial exclusion of air from the globe which became filled with inert gas. The inclosed lamp is now in general use.
Still more recently the efficiency of the arc has been increased by impregnating the carbons with calcium, strontium and other luminous sub- stances.
The lamps employing this principle are the so-called " flaming " arc lamps of Blondel, Bremer and others. Steinmetz has also brought out a very efficient arc lamp in which magnetite and copper take the place of carbons.
In this as well as in the other '' flaming arcs " the main source of light is the arc, while in the carbon lamps it is the incan- descent carbon tips.
Recent Improvements in Electric Lamps. In addition to the forms of arc and incandescent lamp, there are several of recent development which have great commercial promise.
In the vacuum tube and mercury arc luminosity comes from the passage of the current through tubes containing respec- tively air or other gas at low pressure and mercury vapor.
The Nemst lamp with its kaolin filament in air is now in general use. In this type an important property possessed by certain refractory earths is utilized.
When these are heated they become conductors, and their refractory nature permits the use of very high temperature in air.
Electric Heating. Electric lighting is largely a matter of heat production, but there are also some applications of electric heating in which light is not produced.
It is difficult to determine the period in which the current was used for heating purposes, but undoubtedly it was so used early in the nineteenth century.
At the present time heat is produced electrically to some extent for cooking, soldering, room and car warming and for metallurgical purposes.
An example of the last mentioned is found in the manufacture of the abrasive, carbonmdum, mentioned in the Introduction. Engineering Electro-Chemistry ; Early Experiments in Electro-Decomposition, Some slight use was made of electri- city in the latter part of the eighteenth century in producing chemical reactions by means of the discharge from Leyden jars and electrical machines.
When Volta, by means of his battery, rendered available the electric current, a new impetus was given to discovery in electro-chemistry.
Ammonia, nitric acid and sulphuric acid were decomposed, and the plating of one metal with another was accomplished.
As had already been mentioned, Davy made use of these processes in He produced potassium and sodium by electrolysis.
Faraday, as a result of his electrical investigations, determined some of the most important laws of electrolysis, which now bear his name.
He determined the electro-chemical equivalents of many substances. These researches made possible the commercial advances in electrolysis in recent years, the most important of which from the engineering standpoint are the storage battery and the reduction of metals.
The Storage Battery. The modem storage battery dates from about i when Gaston Plante produced spongy lead and lead oxide sheets by the action of the current.
Twenty years later, Camille Faure improved upon Plante's discovery by making the plates in the form of lead grids with fillings of red oxide of lead.
The lead oxide was reduced to spongy lead by the current, or further oxidized to peroxide, thus forming the negative and positive plates respectively.
This invention made it possible to store a large amount of energy in a small space. Since the improvements in the storage cells have been largely mechan- ical ones.
In the past few years there has been a tendency to return to the Plante type of plate for the positives, and the modem cells are of this form.
Copper Refining and Plating. The electrolytic refining of copper dates back to Prof. ArUoine Ceser Becquerel Paris, France, , who in the year succeeded in pro- ducing copper from a solution.
It was not, however, until that James B. Elkington made the process a commercial success. The several processes developed since that time differ largely in the manner of handling the ore, which in all cases must be reduced to metallic form before it can be sub- jected to electrolysis.
The use of a copper coating for repro- ducing the form of objects was one of the first applications of Becquerel's discovery.
Other Processes. The reduction of aluminum is of com- paratively recent invention, and the principal process in use is that due to Charles M, Hall Niagara Falls, N.
In the Hall process the aluminum is reduced from oxides while suspended in a bath of fused cryolite. This process was put into commercial operation in Numerous other electro-chemical processes are in use for producing all kinds of chemical substances, most of these being of compara- tively recent invention.
The Faraday disk and Barlow wheel contained the essentials of the modem generator and motor. Progress in their development was slow, and for forty years after Faraday's discoveries the primary battery remained the principal source of current supply.
The first " d3niamos " comprised permanent magnet fields with bobbins of wire moving in relation to them. This was improved by Qarke of London, who studied the proper proportions to produce the best eflfect.
Page Washington, D. The changes in the field produced by the movement of the soft iron armature induced electromotive force in the coils.
Other inventors introduced improvements one by one, increasing the size of the machines gradually. In an improved armature by Werner Siemens Berlin, Germany, , and the result was a more rapid development.
Siemens' armature consisted of a cylinder with deep slots on opposite sides in which the coils were wound.
It was the forenmner of the modem drum armature. In i an Italian inventor, Paccinotti, produced a type of armature in which the coils were wound around the surface of a ring.
The early generators employed permanent magnet fields which were too weak for power generation on a large scale.
While battery current was available for field excitation this was not convenient. Hence the importance of the intro- duction of the auxiliary magneto-generator exciter by Wilde in the early sixties.
Sir Charles Wheatstone made the final step in this direction by exciting the field from the armature of the machine, exhibiting his invention in One of the first reproductions of the Gramme machine in America was constructed by Pro- fessors Anthony and Moler at Cornell in , and the machine was exhibited at the Centennial Exposition of A number of interesting features were introduced, among which was the movable rocker arm for the brushes.
The invention of Gramme, combined with those immediately preceding it, resulted in the production of satisfactory electric generators and aroused the interest of a number of practical inventors, among whom, in addition to those already men- tioned, the most prominent were Brush, Weston and Edison.
Early Alternators. Practically all of the machines men- tioned were direct current generators. The apparatus for which current was required, had been constructed to operate from primary batteries, hence there was no demand for the alter- nating current.
All of the machines required commutating or rectifying devices for reversing the connection of the vari- ous coils with the circuit as the current in the coils alternated.
Inherently the machines were alternators with the exception of the Faraday disk, which in its original form was of no par- ticular use.
It is surprising, therefore, that the adoption of alternating current was delayed until the early eighties. The slow development of the alternating current generator was partly due to the fact that the early machines of this type were limited in output, and the use of a separate exciter was considered troublesome.
As stated before, the apparatus that had been developed was not suited to the alternating currenti and the use of the alternating current was little understood.
The first com- mercial alternators were built for use in connection with the JablochkoflF arc lamps which consisted of two vertical parallel carbons.
Alternating current was desirable with these in order to bum oflF the terminals evenly. These machines were built by Gramme between and They contained internal revolving field magnets supplied with current by a direct connected exciter.
A few years before this there were several magneto-alternators operating arc lamps in light- houses and built by TAlliance Francaise, but they were of very small capacity.
Among builders of alternators of this same period Prof. Gisbert Kapp was one of the most prom- inent.
The magnetic field of Kapp's alternator comprised sets of bobbins placed opposite the two faces of a ring arma- ture.
His machine was very successful. In the United States the pioneer was George Westinghottse, who was constructing alter- nators of small size in 1 The Transformer.
The early alternators were of the low pressure type with limited range of transmission. The inven- tion of the transformer, the principle of which had been dis- covered by Faraday in , was made in England by Messrs.
Gaulard and Gibbs in and Their transformer was practically the same as Faraday's ring, but in order to pre- vent the leakage of magnetism between the coils these were placed close together.
Zipernowski and Deri in built these transformers in large sizes. At the same time Westing- house secured the American rights of the Gaulard and Gibbs patents and proceeded to develop the alternating current in this country.
The many inventors at work on the transformer have produced various mechanical and electrical improvements chiefly dealing with increase in efficiency, strengthening of insulation and reduc- tion of magnetic leakage.
Power Transmission. The production of successful alter- nators, and transformers opened the way for power trans- mission over considerable distances.
During the winter of a transmission plant was installed at Telluride, Colo. The motor and generator were alike except that the latter was self -exciting while the former was separately excited.
The transmission pressure was volts and the distance, 2. Shortly before this, the polyphase current had been developed, but had not been applied to power transmission up to Dolivo von Dob- rowolski had adapted the principle underlying Arago's disk experiment to the production of mechanical power without the aid of a commutator.
By means of two or more alternat- ing currents with maximum values occurring at different times they produced a rotating magnetic field with fixed coils.
A short circuited armature placed in such a rotating field had a tendency to follow its motion. The Tesla patents were acquired in this country by the Westinghouse Company in , and polyphase induction motors, as they were called, were soon upon the market.
Brown of the Oerlikon Machine Works took up the development of the single-phase system and operated a transmission plant at Kassel, Germany, over five miles in length.
In order to demonstrate the possibility of long distance transmission a famous experiment was made in connection with the Frankfort Exposition of Three-phase current was used to transmit power from LauflFen, a distance of 75 miles, and a special generator was designed by Brown to produce the three-phase current at 50 volts.
The pressure was raised to 13, volts for transmission, by means of special transformers. The efficiency of transmission was about 75 per cent, which was so satisfac- tory that a great impetus was given to the application of the polyphase transmission system.
Professor Elihu Thomson thus summarized the status of power transmission at this period. Before no such plants existed.
A large number of small installa- tions are now working over distances of a few miles up to miles. They differ from what are known as single-phase alter- nating systems in employing, instead of a single alternating current, two, three, or more, which are sent over separate lines, and in which the electric impulses are not simultaneous, but follow each other in regular succession, overlapping each other's dead points, so to speak.
Early suggestions of such a plan about , and thereafter, by Bailey, Deprez and others, bore no fruit, and not until Tesla's announcement of his poly- phase system in was much attention given to the subject.
A wide-spread interest in Tesla's experiment was invoked, but several years elapsed before engineering difficulties were over- come.
After the growth became very rapid. In the Westinghouse Company, was awarded the contract for a 15, horse-power plant to develop two-phase currents at volts.
This plant was successfully built and has since been extended by the Niagara Power Company, which at the present time has three large power plants with a combined ultimate capacity of nearly a quarter million horse power.
Since numerous water powers in all parts of the world have been developed and are being developed by means of the polyphase current, and power may now be transmitted as far as economic conditions warrant.
Early Electric Motors, An essential feature of power transmission is the electric motor. The motor began with Barlow's wheel in In this form it did not permit of the production of any considerable amount of power, and it was not until after the invention of the electro-magnet that the motor was used commercially.
Moritz Hermann Jacobi St. Petersburg, combined a number of electro- magnets in such a way as to permit the development of con- siderable power.
A number of electro-magnets were arranged as shown in Fig. Current was supplied intermittently through contact rings to the revolving armature.
In this way it received a series of impulses in one direction. This motor was placed on a boat on the river Neva, Russia.
Thomas Davenport was the builder of the first motor in the United States. Professor Henry also built a powerful motor, using his own electro-magnets.
Numerous experimenters, including Fromant, Professor Farmer, Paccinotti, and others gradually improved the motor until it was taken up com- mercially by the builders of dynamos and developed in con- FiG.
One of the earliest electric motors. Installed by Jacobi on boat on River Neva, Russia, in As practically all of the d3niamos were reversible they made fairly good motors.
Recent Electric Motors. The electric motors of the present time are of several different types, their peculiar forms having been forced upon them by the conditions under which they are required to operate or by the available source of current.
The first motors were simply reversed dynamos. When motive power was required for traction purposes it was found that reversed djmamos were not satisfactory.
Then began the evolution of a motor peculiarly suited for this work, and the modem series street railway type is the result. For this pur- pose large starting torque, reversibility and durability were the prime requisites.
For stationary uses the shunt motor was developed as constant speed was found to be important. Single or polyphase alternators when operated as motors were fairly satisfactory.
Thus operated the alternator is known as a synchronous motor from the fact that it maintains a speed proportional to that of the generator.
Professor Thomson in produced rotation of a single-phase motor in which the current was furnished to the field and the armature was short circuited.
The name "repulsion motor'' was given to this type. It was not at the time commercially successful, but has recently received great attention.
As previously stated, the invention of the rotating field by Tesla and Ferraris madft available a new type, the induction motor, so-called from the fact that there was no electrical connection between the field and the armature.
The motor has been mechanically and electrically improved until at the present time it is prac- tically perfect.
Induction motors are being built in sizes up to horse-power. The latest of all alternating current motors is the series type which has been successfully adapted to the requirements of railway service.
Satisfactory motors are now obtainable for operation under practically any conditions of service and with any kind of power supply.
As soon as the electric motor had been made possible by the discoveries of Oersted, Faraday, Barlow and Henry, crude forms were developed experimentally.
The first and most natural application of the motor was to trans- portation. In a small model of a railway car driven by current from a primary battery was constructed by Thomas Davenport, a blacksmith of Brandon, Vt.
Moses G. Fanner, in , built and operated a car of small size, and in Thomas Hall built a reversible car in Boston. The first electric railway experiment on a large scale was conducted by Professor Page of the Smithsonian Institution.
A locomotive suppUed with current by a large Grove battery was operated in , and but for the troubles with the battery would have been considered very successful for the time.
All of these early experimenters were handicapped by the lack of an ample supply of electrical power. It was, therefore, not imtil after the development of the electric generator that they were commercially successful.
In experimental railway work was taken up again by George F. Green of Kalamazoo, Mich. In at the Berlin Exposition a model road constructed about the Exposition groimds was the first to carry passengers commercially.
This experi- mental line was followed by a commercial road, built by the same company at Lichterfeld, near Berhn, in The car used attained high speed and was continued for a long time in regular service.
These successful experiments gave a great impetus to the electric railway, and numerous inventors devoted their attention to the subject.
In addition to those already mentioned, Stephen D. Field and Thomas A. Edison constructed an electric locomotive under their own patents and exhibited it in Chicago in Charles J.
Van de Poele constructed a small experimental line in Chicago, in , in which the current was supplied from an overhead wire.
In the follow- ing year Van de Poele operated cars at the Toronto Exposition and soon after in other places.
Commercial Application. By the year the electric railway was approaching commercial success. It was being shown at all the expositions, and cars were in commercial Fig.
Early electric locomotive, the Ampere. Leo Daft had constructed a loco- motive of considerable power which he named the " Ampere," and he also had other cars in operation.
In this year electric locomotives were put into operation on the Hampton branch of the Baltimore Union Passenger Railway Company, and pulled regular street cars.
Experiments at practically the same time were being carried on in Cleveland, Ohio, by Messrs. Bentley and Knight who installed an unsuc- cessful underground conduit.
Wellington Adams, J, C. Henry, Sidney H, Short, and others. In the meantime Mr. Sprague had not been idle, and in the year construction work was begun on the Thirty-fourth Street branch of the New York Elevated Road, and a year later an elevated car was operated.
The experience gained here was applied in to the construction of roads at St. Joseph, Mo. These were the first to be electrified on a large scale.
Sprague thus summarizes the features of this now historic system: " A system of distribution by an overhead line carried over the center of the track, reinforced by a continuous main conductor, in turn supplied at central distributing points by feeders from a constant potential plant, operated at about volts, with reinforced track return.
The current was taken from the overhead line at first by fixed upper pressure contacts, and subsequently by a wheel carried on a pole sup- ported over the center of the car and having free up and down reversible movement.
Exposed motors, one to each, were centered on the axles, and geared to them at first by single, and then by double reduction gears, the outer ends being spring supported from the car body so that the motors were individually free to follow every variation of axle movement, and yet maintain at all times a yielding touch upon the gears in absolute parallelism.
All the weight of the car was avail- able for traction, and the cars could be operated in either direction from either end of the car.
The controlling system was at first by graded resistances, afterward by varia- tion of the field coils from series to multiple relations, and series-parallel control of armatures by a separate switch.
Motors were nm in both directions with fixed brushes, at first laminated ones placed at an angle, and later solid metallic ones with radial bearing.
Ill, p. Since the improvements have been largely those of electrical and mechanical design as far as motors are concerned.
As the range of operation of the cars increased and electricity was applied to heavy traction work other improvements were necessary.
Among these may be mentioned a system of multiple imit control for start- ing the motors of the several cars of the train at the same time.
This was also invented by Sprague. The interurban develop- ment brought about the use of alternating current transmis- sion for the power and the introduction of substations in which the current was transformed to direct for use upon the cars.
At the present time the alternating current motor is in process of application to electric traction and is rendering unnecessary the special substations.
The steam railroads of the country are also seriously considering the adoption of electricity as motive power, especially for suburban traffic and tunnel service.
The Faraday disk arranged for experiments to be used as the basis of definitions. Experiments showing the inter-relation of fundamental electrical and magnetic quantities.
Effect of change of direction of current and field. Mechanical reaction between current and field.
Generator of e. Electrical power. Identity of electrical and mechanical power. Summary of deduction from experiments.
Definition of units in the practical system. Fundamental units — current — resistance — e. Definition of units in the C. Field strength — e.
Summary of definitions. The study of electrical engineering should be based upon accurate conceptions of fundamental electrical and magnetic quantities which for practical use must be reduced to defini- tions in previously familiar terms.
Such definitions are only possible when the fundamental facts are clearly understood. To avoid imnecessary complication, a few very simple and familiar experiments have been selected as the basis of the definitions.
Faraday's experiment with the magnet and pivoted disk used as a generator of electric current, and Bar- low's experiment, using a similar apparatus as a motor, illus- trate the intimate relation which exists between magnetism and the electric current.
For mechanical convenience the apparatus has been arranged as shown in Fig. A large compound permanent magnet, with its poles brought close together to form a short air gap, and consequently a strong magnetic field, is moimted in the position shown.
The surfaces of the poles have been made Fig. Special arrangement of Faraday's disk or Barlow's wheel for demonstration and experiment.
A large copper disk, rotating in ball bearings, is so placed that it cuts the magnetic field at as high a velocity as possible.
Current is conducted to and from the disk through copper strips or " brushes " which bear upon the center and rim.
The magnet is mov- able with respect to the disk, and the disk itself may be removed and replaced by another.
A pulley is mounted upon the disk axle for the purposes of supplying power when the disk is operated as a generator and of connecting it to a load when it is used as a motor.
In this machine the current flows from brush to brush through the disk and passes through the magnetic field. The apparatus embodies the most important principles of modem electric generators and motors, but it is not efficient as a machine in the form shown.
It has, how- ever, a modem prototype in the unipolar djTiamo which differs from it only in details of design and construction.
On account of the recent development of the steam turbine, giving high peripheral velocity, the imipolar dynamo is coming into commercial operation.
Experiment I. When current is sent through the disk from center to rim, it rotates in a definite direction. If the direction of the current is re- Bacterjr versed and it flows from rim to center, the disk rotates in the opposite direction.
Further, if the magnetic poles are reversed, the direction of the current re- maining the same, the direction of rotation is reversed.
In Fig. Experiment In the first experiment the effects of chang- ing the direction of current and field were noted.
The inves- tigation may be carried farther by substituting for the first disk another of different thickness or one made of different material.
The rotative force will be greater or less, indicat- ing a change in the current, the field being assumed to remain constant.
It is convenient to say that if the field is the same the mechanical force is an indication of the strength of the cur- rent.
Similarly if a stronger magnet replace the original one the rotative force will be increased.
In this case, assuming the current to have remained constant, the force may be re- garded as an indication of the strength of the field.
Taken together. Experiments I and II give a means for determining the relative values of current and field strength.
Experiment III. Having from Experiments I and II a convenient means for determining the relative strength of two or more currents, a study of some of the properties of the elec- tric circuit may be made.
In Experiment II a change in the dimensions or material of the disk through which the current passes was found to alter the force, indicating a change in the current.
There was evidently a change in the resistance offered by the disk to the flow of the current. If this current was furnished by a cell of primary or secondary battery there must have been in this cell a property or condition by which it maintained the current.
This ability to maintain the current is termed the electromotive force, a cumbersome but expressive name.
Instead of changing the disks, a different source of electromotive force may be used. If two cells in series be employed instead of one, an increased rotative force will be evident, indicating an increase in the current.
The inter-relation of current, electro- motive force, and resistance has been experimentally deter- mined and is known as Ohm's Law, This law states that the current is directly proportional to the electromotive force, and inversely proportional to the resistance in a circuit.
Experiment IV. If the rims and centers of two Faraday disks are connected by electrical conductors, and if one of these disks be rotated by an external source of power, the other will tend to rotate also.
This tendency indicates the flow of a current through the motor disk, the connecting circuit, and there- fore through the generator disk, as all electrical circuits must be continuous.
The current in the motor disk is maintained by an electromotive force produced by the motion of the generator disk in its field. A change in the speed of the generator disk will correspondingly change the current in the circuit, indicat- ing a similar change in the electromotive force.
If while Fig. Diagram showing two disks connected electrically, one of which acts as generator, the other as motor. Experiment shows it to be directly proportional to either speed or field strength and therefore to their product.
Experiment V. In the generator disk of Experiment IV the electromotive force produces a current which obviously must have reacted upon the generator field with a mechanical force, just as in the case of the motor disk.
The mechanical force is proportional to the current, and the electromotive force which sets up this current is proportional to the speed, therefore the product of current and electromotive force in any system of electrical units is equal to the product of velocity and force in any System of mechanical units.
With systems of units chosen for the electrical and ivumtaio. For example, if in the Fig. Diagram showing generator disk driven through diflFerential driving belt of the generator transmission dynamometer to meas- disk a transmission dynamo- ure mechanical power input.
The belt velocity may be measured by a speed indicator. The product of the ten- sion and the velocity will give the mechanical power.
For the corresponding electrical quantities, experiments, embodying the principles indicated in Experiments I to IV, may be used to determine the values of current and electromotive force.
After correcting for the losses in the generator, the mechanical input may be equaled to the electrical output. These experi- ments establish the identity of mechanical and electrical power.
As a further illustration of the inter- changeability of mechanical and electrical power, two Faraday disks may be belted together as shown in Fig.
They are also connected electrically as before. When once brought up to speed the motor-generator set would continue to rotate if there were no losses.
There are, however, mechanical and electrical losses throughout the system which must be sup- plied from an external mechanical or electrical source.
Diagram showing two disks electrically and mechanically con- nected with auxiliary belt for supplying losses. Except for these losses the mechanical power parsing through the belt from motor to generator will be equal to that electrically transmitted from generator to motor.
Experiment V shows that electrical power is the product, of electromotive force and current. From Experiment III electromotive force was seen to be the product of resistance and current in a circuit con- taining resistance only.
In such a circuit, therefore, the power used in overcoming the electrical resistance is the product of the square of the current and the resistance.
This deduction is known as Joule's Law. Summary of Deductions from Experiments I to VL Experiment I shows the existence of a mechanical reaction between the current and a magnetic field, and this reaction has a definite direction with respect to either the field or the current.
Experiment II shows the relation of the mechanical reaction to the magnitude of the field and the current, and furnishes the basis for the definition of one in terms of the other.
Experiment III shows the inter-relation of current, electro- motive force, and resistance, which is embodied in Ohm's law. Experiment IV shows the inter-relation of field strength, speed, and electromotive force, and furnishes a basis upon which one of these may be defined in terms of the other two.
Experiments V and VI show the identity of mechanical and electrical power. Experiments III and V furnish a basis for determining the rate at which power is transformed into heat in resistance, the statement of which is known as Joule's Law.
The apparatus used in these experiments forms a very crude generator or motor. The losses are, therefore, excep- tionally large.
The student should not judge of the eflSciency of modem machines by reference to the Faraday disk. Definitions of Units in the Practical System.
The experiments described have indicated the inter-rela- tions existing among mechanical and electrical quantities.
If two of the latter be fixed in any way all will then have abso- lute values, which may be determined by the relations already established.
The legal standards are secondary standards, absolute measurements of the fimdamental electrical quantities, being troublesome and expensive to make.
For the present pur- poses it is sufficient to define these legal standards. State of the Climate in Brun, F.
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